**Make the world finite. Give it measure. ** Since the beginning of time, humans have measured distance based on nature and everyday activities. From their fields to the foundations of their buildings to the distance to the stars, there have been many kinds of length measuring tools: measuring tapes, rulers, human strides, even human hands! Perfect numbers for measurement from the beginning were ten (as in ten fingers and ten toes) and 6 and 12 (as in inches per foot). The Greeks tried to unify ways of measuring and established three standards: the Doric foot, Attic foot and Samian foot. A **fathom** was the distance from the fingertips of one hand to the fingertips of the other, while the arms were held straight out to the sides. A **league** was based on the distance that could be walked in an hour. England developed the **yard** during the 13th century. While parts of your body: your hands, feet and eyes can help you calculate distances, the measuring tape, ruler and laser are more accurate tools (See the Metric journey). France adopted the **metric system** or Système International d'Unités in 1837 based on millimeters, centimeters, meters and kilometers. The United States uses what is commonly referred to as the US Standard Units with inches, feet, yards and miles. **Measure your world! **

**Measures**

12 inches……….1 foot

3 feet……………..1 yard

1,760 yards……..1 mile

3 mile……………..1 league

## Activity 1 – Rule the World! Answer "How tall, wide, or far is it?"

**Armed with marks on a stick, take measure of your world. ** Measure ten items that you use everyday. Measure your toothbrush, your bed, your shoes, and the height of your cereal box, your kitchen table, your schoolbook, your notebook, your eraser, your pencil, and your backpack. Make a chart that shows the length of the smallest object to the largest object. Which object is less than one foot (12 inches)? Which object is more than a foot? And which objects are more than three feet, or a yard? Which distances are measured in millimeters, centimeters, meters and kilometers? Put these ten words in order from smallest unit of measurement to largest:

length of a 747 Jet

width of a golf ball

length of an ant

width of a Street

height of an Ostrich

diameter of the Earth

Great Pyramid

height of an apple

width of a plant Cell

Mount Kilamanjaro

Try looking at **Universal Scale** to get ideas for measuring the world!

## Activity 2 – Hand Measures

Draw a big x on a piece of pavement with a piece of chalk. Stand on the x and jump as far as you can. How many hands could you jump? Are your friend’s hands larger than yours? How does that change the results? Could you jump further or not as far? Keep a record of both your measurements and your friend’s measurements in your journal. Don’t forget to make a note of how large your hand is so others can see what your standard is. Even today, horses are measured as to how many hands tall they are!

**Giddy up!**

## Activity 3 – Eyeball Measures

Go into your bedroom and sit down against one wall of the room. How far do you think it is? Guess the amount of space between the wall you are on and the wall across the room. Next, go into another room in your house and guess the length of that room. Build a chart in your journal listing your guesses of the **dimensions** of the rooms. Then, go into each room and take comfortable strides from one side of the room to the other. Each stride is approximately 3 feet. Calculate room dimensions based on your strides. Finally, get a tape measure and measure the width and length of each room. Complete your chart with your guess measurement, your stride measurement, and the actual measurement. Compare your guesses and stride measures to the actual distances. Were you right? Were your guesses more accurate as you practiced and moved from room to room? Bring your new measuring skill to school and ‘measure’ your classroom.

**Compare your observations with your friends! Practicing helps!**

## Activity 4 – Measure in Strides

The measure “foot” came from an average length of a man’s foot. Your stride is the distance between your left and right foot when walking or running. You can shorten your stride by taking ‘baby steps’ or you can lengthen your stride by stepping further and further out. To measure your regular (comfortable) stride, mark a line on the sidewalk. Stand at that line and then take ten strides forward. Mark a line where your last foot ends. Measure that distance and multiply it by 12" to get the ten step distance in inches. Then divide the inches by 10 to get the average distance of each stride.

**distance of 10 steps in feet x 12" divided by 10 = average stride in inches**

You can use this to program a pedometer, or a tool that you wear on your waist that will measure how many steps you take or the distance covered. Pedometers detect motion of your hips and require that you calibrate or set the average distance of your strides before starting to use a pedometer.

**distance = number of steps × stride length**
Designers use strides to quickly estimate sizes of rooms, buildings and sites. They always follow up with accurate measuring devises before beginning to make designs!

## Review

- Who used The Doric foot, the Attic foot and the Samian foot?
- What measuring system did Napoleon use?
- Which country uses the Imperial System?
- What is the most accurate way to measure a room?
- Horses are measured in...

## Explore

- APP Acoustic Ruler ($1.99)
- Bureau International des Poids et Mesures
- Comparative Lengths of the Rivers of the World
- Comparing Lengths in Everyday Objects
- Easy Inches
- Estimation of Distance on Maps
- Estimation of Lengths
- Hard Inches
- Imperial & US measuring systems & history
- Introduction to Standard Units
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- Units of Measurement
- Video MENTAL FLOSS 36 Unusual Units of Measurement