Anima is Latin for ‘the breathe of life’. Animation is a series of drawings that when seen in rapid order and succession, convey the concept of motion. The human eye can start to see fluid motion at 24 images per second, or 1440 images per minute. If an action takes one second to occur, then the action can be seen with 24 slightly different images of that action drawn out. There are three basic types of animation: cell animation, object manipulation, and computer-generated animation. Hand-drawn animation, or cells, can be put together in a bound flipbook, or photographed onto film or digital video to create an animated film. The first animation of hand-drawn images dates back to the 1890’s, with significant development coming from the Walt Disney Studios in the 20th century. Digital technology allows for the computer-generated animations of the 21st century that we see today from firms like Pixar.
Animate the inanimate!
Activity 1 Flip Book
Start with 60 blank 3x5 cards. Then think of an activity or motion graphic that you would like to create. Plan ahead to assure that the motion can occur as you flip through the cards from one end to another while holding one edge firmly. It is best to start with a simple motion graphic: bounce a ball, throw a dart, walk a figure, open a door, or pop a balloon. Still image by still image make slight changes in each subsequent image, moving the image across the screen of your 3 x 5 card. See flipbook links to get started.
Activity 2 Time Lapse Animation
Locate a digital camera and tripod. Plan another series of movements but this time use real 3-D objects. Animate them by taking one picture with the camera, then changing the position of the object, taking a second picture, a third and so on. Then print the series and flip through the images as you did in Activity 1.
Activity 3 Storyboard an Animated Film
To begin an animated film, generate ideas and concepts. Bring ideas together into a story line. Explore the story line through step-by-step or frame-by-frame drawings. You can arrange or rearrange the drawings to change the story line. You're making a storyboard. A storyboard is a visual reference in the development of an animated film. It can set the scene, introduce characters, show actions. Storyboards can also be used to study scene moods, timing of a film, point of view of the camera and audience, and choreography. In this activity, come up with an idea and draw at least 8 frames. Change perspective or point of view and scale in the frames to see how this changes the visual experience.
Once a concept or script is written for a film or animation, the next step is to make a storyboard. A storyboard visually tells the story of an animation, panel by panel, kind of like a comic book.
Your storyboard should convey some of the following information:
What characters are in the frame, and how are they moving? What are the characters saying to each other, if anything? How much time has passed between the last frame of the storyboard and the current one? Where is the "camera" in the scene? Close or far away? Is the camera moving?
Activity 4 Combine Stills with Live Action
Activity 5 Combine Stills with Live Action, 2D and 3D animation
Animation can be done using:
Frames per second is:
Humans begin to see fluid motion at:
Flipbooks consist of still images.
Animation can be hand-drawn, object manipulation, or computer-generated.
- The Dot and the Line: A Romance in Lower Mathematics
- 3 Second Flipbook
- Make a Zoetrope
- Walt Disney
- Optical Toys
- American Museum of the Moving Image
- How to Make a Flipbook
- Windows to the Universe
- Motion Painting Machine (requires Flash)
- FILM: Pre/Post Production
- FILM History
- Spirit of Space
- Gensler Meeting Work's Potential
- Common Craft Animation Explanations
- History of Animation
- Amiens Cathedral
- Architecture Animated
- Animation Cartoon
- Bicycle Animation
- Caketrope of Burton's Team Video: Hommage a Chocolate a Tim Burton
- We Cut Corners' "It's a Pirate's Life for Me!"
- History of Animation 1 Video
- History of Animation 2 Video
- History of Animation 3 Video
- Museum of Moving Image
- Suginami Japanese Animation Museum
- Animation Basics TedED Video
- Animation Basics: Art of timing and Spacing TED Lesson
- Feral Trailer by Daniel Sousa
- Step by Step 3D Drawing
- Amiens Cathedral Part II
- SquareSpace (Web Animation)
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